Feb 3rd, 2007 by Andy Funnell
It seems we have a controversed ancestor in the person of William Funnell who gives his account of a round the world voyage in this text first published in 1707. Captain Dampier, who is mentionned in the text, came home later than William and his crew in a “prize” (ie. stolen) ship. Upon arrival, he accused William and his men of being mutineers. According to some, our scheming ancestor published his book before Dampier arrived home in the unique design of getting himself of the hook. Of course, we can’t subscribe to that theory!
You can download the book, free, and other similar volumes from Project Gutemberg Australia. This is an extract of volume 10 in a series of 18.
VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD, BY WILLIAM FUNNELL, IN 1703-1706.
This voyage has usually passed under the name of Captain William Dampier; but as he proceeded only to the South Seas, and the circumnavigation was entirely completed by Mr William Funnell, who sailed originally as his mate, it seemed proper to place his name in the title of the voyage, instead of that of Captain Dampier, with whom, in this voyage, we have much less to do. It is just however to state, that it was on the credit of Captain Dampier, and in expectation that he would be able to do great things against the Spaniards in the South Sea, that this expedition was undertaken. The point aimed at was plunder, rather than discovery, yet there was something remarkable done even in this way; and the unknown islands met with by Mr Funnell, in his passage between the South Sea and India, strongly confirmed the reports of former navigators, of large, populous, and well-cultivated countries in those parts.  The narrative of Funnell also is well digested, and may be read with much satisfaction, as giving a fair and agreeable account of his adventures.
This expedition was undertaken at the beginning of the Succession war, in the reign of Queen Anne; and high expectations were raised from it, of performing great exploits against the Spaniards, who had accepted the Duke of Anjou as their king. The merchants believed that a very profitable expedition might be made into these parts, with a reasonable force, where the buccaneers, with small and ill-provided vessels, had performed such extraordinary things; and therefore, having obtained the best information they could as to the proper manner of accomplishing the design, they cheerfully contributed to the expenses necessary for the purpose. With this view, they at first fitted out two ships of 26 guns and 120 men each, which were designed for the South Seas. One of these was named the St George, commanded by Captain William Dampier, in which Mr William Funnell sailed as chief mate. The other was the Fame, commanded by Captain John Pulling. Both ships were amply supplied with warlike stores, and well victualled for nine months; and had commissions from Prince George, the queen’s husband, lord-high-admiral, to proceed against the French and Spaniards; and the officers and crews of both were hired on the principles of sharing in the expedition, “no purchase no pay”.
While they lay in the Downs, some difference arose between the two captains, on which Captain Pulling went away with his ship, the Fame, intending to cruize among the Canary Islands, and never afterwards joined. Before sailing on the originally-proposed expedition, Dampier was joined by a small ship, the Cinque-ports galley, Captain Charles Pickering, of ninety tons, carrying 16 guns and 63 men, well victualled and provided for the voyage. The original plan of the voyage was to go first up the Rio Plata, as high as Buenos Ayres, in order to capture two or three Spanish galleons, which Dampier alledged were usually there. If this part of the expedition succeeded, so as to get to the value of about 600,000″l”. it was to be proceeded in no farther; but if his first object failed, they were then to cruize on the coast of Peru, to intercept the ships which bring gold from Baldivia to Lima. Should this again fail of success, they were to attempt some rich towns, as Dampier might direct. After this, they were to go to the coast of Mexico, at that time of the year when the great galleon usually comes from Manilla to Acapulco, which is commonly reported to be worth fourteen millions of dollars.
On their arrival at Madeira, learning that the galleons from Buenos Ayres had already arrived in safety at Teneriffe, that part of the expedition was laid aside. “How well we pursued the latter part of our instructions, the subsequent history of our voyage will sufficiently declare; in recording which I have used the greatest sincerity, narrating every thing exactly in the manner in which it happened, and setting down all that appeared worthy of notice, with all truth and plainness: so that I flatter myself the whole will be found useful, and that the latter part especially will be esteemed new, curious, and interesting, as it contains many things not before published or known.” 
“Narrative of the Voyage, till the Separation of Funnell from Dampier.”
We sailed from the Downs on the 30th April, 1703, and anchored on the 18th May at Kinsale, in Ireland. We here refitted and victualled our ship, and were joined by the Cinque-ports, and left Kinsale on the 11th September. We reached Madeira on the 25th, where we did not come to anchor, but plied off and on for our boats, which were sent ashore for necessaries. By a good observation, I made this island to be in lat 32° 20′ N. and long. by my account, 18° 5′ W. from London. October 6th,we saw Mayo, one of the Cape de Verd islands, in lat. 15° 12′ N. long. 23° 20′ W. off which we plied all night; but the surf ran so high that we durst not send our boats ashore for salt. We accordingly bore up next day for St Jago, and anchored at noon of the 7th in Prior bay [Port Praya] in that island. This is one of the most fruitful of the Cape Verd Islands, abounding in hogs, poultry, guinea fowl, monkeys, maiz, oranges, lemons, dates, water-melons, plantains, bananas, and other fruits, having good water, but troublesome to get at, and wood is very dear. The inhabitants of this island were formerly Portuguese, banished thither for murders, thefts, and other crimes; but are now mostly all black, in consequence of these men having issue by their female slaves,which were Guinea negroes. Yet they still retain the vices of their progenitors, thieving being more common here than in any place I ever visited, insomuch that they will take a man’s hat from his head at noon day and in the midst of company. In trading with them, it is necessary not to let them have your goods before theirs are delivered, or you are sure to lose them. We here watered and refreshed ourselves; and here a disagreement took place between Captain Dampier and his first-lieutenant, who was turned ashore at midnight, with his chest and servant. At four next morning, being the 13th October, we sailed from St Jago, not fully resolved where next to touch at.
On the 22d October we caught four fish; a shark, a dolphin, a jelly-fish, and an old-wife. The shark and dolphin are well known, and need not be described in this place. The “Jelly-fish” was about fourteen inches long and two inches deep, having sharp teeth, a sparkling eye, and long extended mouth. It has a prodigiously high fin on its back, of a slimy substance, except that its rays, which are thirty-two in number, are firm and stiff. It has also one small fin under the throat, of the same slimy substance with the large one on its back. The greater part of the body is of a silver colour, with numerous small dark spots and circular bands, all the rest of its substance being a green jelly-like substance, whence the name. The “Old-wife” is about two feet long and nine inches high in the back, having a small mouth, a large eye, and a large broad fin beginning at the hinder part of the head, and reaching to the tail. It has also a large broad fin on each side near the gills, and a pretty large one under the belly. The body is deep blue, and the fins a very light blue, tipt with yellow. The head has many spots, and the body is regularly streaked longways.
We passed the equator on the 2d November, about forty-five leagues west from the meridian of St Jago. On the 8th, in lat. 10° 20′ S. we saw three small islands on the coast of Brazil, called the islands of St Ann, not above a stone’s throw from each other, and very full of wood, as is the whole coast of Brazil. These islands are about four miles from the main, and are much troubled with southerly winds, which blow in gusts, so that ships ought here to lay their best anchor to the south, and all little enough sometimes for their safety. They produce nothing except wood, and are frequented by vast flocks of sea fowl, called boobies by our sailors. The “booby” is about the size of a duck, some entirely white and others grey, having feet like a duck, and subsist mostly on flying-fishes, which they catch while in the air. have made many a meal on these birds, but it was for want of other victuals, for they taste very fishy, and are apt to make one sick, if not previously well salted. They are so silly, when weary of flying, that they will light upon your hand, if held out to them.
We anchored at the island of “Le Grand”, in lat, 23° 30′ S. on the 24th of November. This is a very woody island, on which are several good springs of water. It is about nine miles in circuit, and three miles from the main, the woods being infested with many savage animals, which make a most hideous noise in the night. It produces sugar, rum, and several kinds of fruits, but all very dear, on account of supplying the town of St Paul with necessaries. “St Paul” is 300 miles inland from Le Grand; but by the vast high mountains which are between, it is reckoned a distance of sixty days journey. Near St Paul there is said to be a gold mine, which is accounted the richest hitherto known. We here wooded, watered, and refitted our ships; and our new first-lieutenant, falling out with the captain, went ashore, together with eight of our men, and left us. Here also Charles Pickering, captain of the Cinque-ports, departed this life, and was succeeded in the command by his first-lieutenant, Mr Thomas Stradling. At this island there are good fish of various sorts, one of which, called the “Silver-fish”, is about twenty inches long, and eight deep, from back to belly, having five small fins immediately behind the head, and one large fin from the last of these to the tail; one middle-sized fin on each side near the gills, and a large fin from the middle of the belly to the tail, which last is half-moon shaped. The eyes are large, the nostrils wide, and the mouth small. It is a thin fish, and full of bones, of a fine transparent white, like silver.
Leaving the isle of Le Grand on the 8th December, we passed the islands of Sebalt de Weert [“Falklands”] on the 29th. In lat. 57° 50′ S. we had a terrible storm, in which we lost company of our consort, the Cinque-ports, on the 4th January, 1704. When in lat 60° 51′ S. on the 20th, believing we had sufficiently passed Cape Horn, we tacked to the N. and got sight of the island of “Mocha” on the 4th February. This island is in lat. 38° 20′ S. twenty miles from the coast of Chili, and is well inhabited by Indians, who are always at war with the Spaniards, and indeed with all white men, because they consider them all as Spaniards. It is a high island, four leagues long, having many shoals on its west side, which extend a league or more out to sea. It is about 112 miles to the northward of Baldivia.
We saw the island of Juan Fernandez on the 7th February, and on the 10th, while passing the great bay, we saw the Cinque-ports, which had arrived three days before. We accordingly anchored in the great bay, in thirty-five fathoms. At this island we wooded, watered, and refitted our ships, giving them a heel to clean their sides as low as we could, which took up much time, and occasioned both companies to be much on shore. In this island there are abundance of cabbage-trees, which are excellent, though small. The cabbage-tree, which is a species of palm, has a small straight stem, often ninety to one hundred feet long, with many knots or joints, about four inches asunder, like a bamboo-cane. It has no leaves except at the top, in the midst of which the substance called cabbage is contained, which, when boiled, is as good as any garden cabbage. The branches of this tree we commonly twelve or thirteen feet in length, and at about a foot and a half from the tree the leaves begin, which are about four feet long and an inch and a half broad, the leaves growing so regularly that the whole branch seems one entire leaf. The cabbage, when cut out from among the roots of the branches, is usually a foot long and six inches diameter, and as white as milk. From the bottom of the cabbage there spring out several large bunches of berries, like grapes, each bunch being five or six pounds weight. The berries are red, and about the size of cherries, each having a large stone in the middle, and the pulp tastes like that of haws.
The sea-lion is so called, as I suppose, because he roars somewhat like a lion, and his head also has some resemblance to that animal, having four large teeth in front, all the rest being short, thick, and stubbed. Instead of feet and legs, he has four fins; the two foremost serving him, when he goes ashore, to raise the fore part of the body, and he then draws the hind part after him. The two hinder fins are of no use on land, but only when in the water. This animal is very fat, for which reason we killed several of them, from which we made a ton of oil for our lamps; and, while at this island, made use of it also for frying our fish. They have short light-coloured hair while young, becoming sandy when old. Their food is fish, and they prey altogether in the water, but come on land to sleep, when five, six, or more of them huddle together like swine, and will often lie still three or four days, if not molested. They are much afraid of men, and make off as fast as they can into the water. If hard pressed, they will turn about, raising their bodies on their fore fins, and face you with their mouths wide open, so that we used to clap a pistol to their mouth, and fire down their throat. Sometimes five or six of us would surround one of these monsters, each having a half pike, and so prick him till he died, which commonly was the sport of two or three hours.
While we were at this island, a difference took place between Captain Stradling and his men, which was at last compromised by Captain Dampier. On the 29th February we descried a sail, on which all hands hurried on board, and we slipped our cables and stood out to sea. The Frenchman, for so he afterwards proved, immediately tacked and stood from us, while we followed the chase with all sail, and got up with him about eleven at night, but did not deem it convenient to engage till day. During the chase our pinnace towed under water, and was cut adrift. Captain Stradling’s boat also got loose, in which were a man and a dog.
At sun-rise next morning, 1st March, we began to engage the French ship, which was of about 400 tons burden, and thirty guns, well manned. We fought her very close, broadside to broadside, for seven hours; and then a small gale springing up, she sheered off. In this action our consort only fired ten or twelve guns at the commencement, when she dropt astern, and never again came up during the whole fight, in which we had nine men slain and several wounded. We were desirous to have had another trial with the Frenchman, knowing it would be of bad consequences to let him go, as he would discover our being in these seas to the Spaniards; but our captain opposed this, saying, he knew where he could get to the value of 500,000″l”. at any time. So we concluded to return to Juan Fernandez, to get our anchors, long boats, and several tons of water already casked, together with a ton of sea-lion oil, which we had left there. Captain Stradling also had left five of his men, who were gone to the west part of the island, and knew nothing of our going away after the enemy. He had also left all his sails, besides those at the yards, and a great many other stores.
We had then the wind at S. directly off Juan Fernandez, so that it was difficult to go there; and while beating up we saw two sail, to which the Cinque-ports was very near, and they fired several shots at her, but she rowed away to us, and reported them to be two French ships of about 36 guns each; on which the two captains thought it convenient to bear away for the coast of Peru, leaving Captain Stradling’s five men, with his other stores, which he could ill spare, and now we had neither of us any boats. We accordingly stood for the coast of Peru on the 6th March, and fell in with it on the 11th, in lat. 24° 53′ S. The land here was very high, having three distinct ranges of hills behind each other, that nearest the water the lowest, and the farthest off the highest. We coasted along shore to the northward, and passed the port of “Capaipo” on the 14th, said to be a very good harbour, fenced from almost all winds. The land is here inhabited by Indians, who make good wines; and it is said to abound in good meat, corn, and other provisions, and from this port they export wine, money, and other goods for Coquimbo. We would willingly have gone ashore for refreshments, but could not for want of boats.
Continuing along the coast, which is the highest and most mountainous I ever saw, we were surprised, on the 19th of March, to see the waves changed to a red colour for seven or eight leagues, though on sounding we had no ground at 170 fathoms; but on drawing up some of the water, we found the colour owing to a vast quantity of fish-spawn, swimming on the surface. We were now in lat. 16° 11′ S. having passed the three famous ports of Arica, Ylo, and Arequipa. The 22d March we were off the harbour of Callao de Lima, when we saw two ships steering for that port, to which we gave chase, and soon came up with the sternmost, which proved to be the ship we had fought with off the island of Juan Fernandez. We were very eager to stop her from going in, to prevent the Spaniards from having intelligence of us, and hindering their merchant ships from putting to sea, and did not question our taking her, being all now in health; whereas on the former occasion, between twenty and thirty of our men were very sick and weak. But Captain Dampier was averse to attack her; and while the matter was disputing, both ships got into the port of Lima, from whence twenty ships such as ours could not have forced them out. This proceeding gave great offence to most of the crew, and might have proved of bad consequence, had we not taken two very considerable prizes a few days afterwards, one of 150 and the other of 200 tons. We took out of these every thing that we thought useful, and then dismissed them.
The 5th of April, we began to prepare for the great exploit our captain meditated, of landing on the coast and plundering some rich city; for which purpose our carpenters were ordered to fit up the launches or long boats we had taken from our prizes, so as to land our men in safety, and to fit two swivels in each launch. On the 11th we took a bark of fifty tons, laden with plank and cordage, as if sent on purpose for our present service. This was in sight of “Gallo”, under which island we anchored next day with our prize, which we kept to use in the intended enterprise. The island of “Gallo” is in lat. 2° 45′ N. long. 76° 38′ W. from London,  and about five leagues from the main; being two leagues long and one league broad. When approached from the south, it shews three hummocks which seem at a distance as three separate islands, the land between being very low; but when to the N.W. of the S. end you will see a small island, or rock rather, resembling a ship under sail. From this island the main land is in sight, being very low near the sea, but prodigiously high up the country. We anchored off the N.W. part of this island, two cables length from the shore, in thirty-five fathoms on hard sand, the N. point bearing N. 1/2 W. and the S. point S.W. The watering place goes in with a full gap, over which, on the hill, is a plain spot of red earth, bearing N.W. 1/2 N. but there are several other good watering places in the island. The best anchorage is on the N.E. part at “Legnetta”, where a ship may wood and water quite secure from any enemy. The island is very woody, affording large timber, which is often shipped hence for Peru. There are here a few wild monkeys, with abundance of lizards; among which is one called the “lion-lizard”, about the size of a man’s arm, one that I measured being three feet eleven inches from the head to the end of the tail. It has a kind of large comb on its head, standing up like a helmet, as if to defend its head, and when attacked it erects this comb, which otherwise lies in a deep groove on the head, just fitted for its reception, so that it can hardly be seen when down. This animal has very large eyes, and a large mouth, in which are a great many small sharp teeth. The skin is rough and of a dark colour, full of black, yellow, and bluish spots. It runs very swift, yet our dog caught many of them.
After remaining here five days, we began to hoist our anchors to set sail, when we discovered a ship standing in for the island, which we took. She was a small vessel of fifty tons, commanded by a Mestizo, on board of which we found a Guernsey man, who had been taken by the Spaniards, while cutting logwood in the Bay of Campeachy above two years before, and must have continued a prisoner during life if we had not released him. On sailing from Gallo, our purpose was to attack the town of Santa Maria, not far from this on the continent to the E. expecting there to have found a great quantity of gold, brought thither from the adjacent mines of the same name. But this design miscarried, whether from fear, confusion, or the enemy having early intelligence of our motions, which enabled them to cut off many of our men. This, however, is certain, that we were quite sick of our fruitless attempts on shore by the 1st May, and immediately re-embarked. We were now so short of provisions, that five boiled green plantains were allotted for six men; but, when almost out both of hope and patience, a vessel came and anchored close beside us at midnight, which we took without resistance. This proved a most valuable prize, being a ship of 150 tons, laden with flour, sugar, brandy, wine, about thirty tons marmalade of quinces, a considerable quantity of salt, and several tons of linen and woollen cloth; so that we had now a sufficient supply of provisions even for four or five years. I was put aboard of this prize on behalf of Captain Dampier and his company, and the master of the Cinque-ports, in behalf of Captain Stradling and his crew.
We carried our prize into the Bay of Panama, and anchored under the island of Tobago on the 14th of May. Here Captains Dampier and Stradling disagreed, and the quarrel proceeded to such length, that they could not be reconciled, so that at last it was determined to part company, all the men being at liberty to go with which captain they pleased, in consequence of which five of our men went over to Captain Stradling, and five of his men came to us. We were now informed by the prisoners, that there were 80,000 dollars on board our prize, which had been taken on board at Lima clandestinely, and were concealed at the bottom of the hold in the run of the ship. But Captain Dampier would not credit this, neither would he wait till we should rummage her to the bottom, lest delay might mar his great designs. Having, therefore, taken on board a quantity of provisions from the prize, she was dismissed; and we set sail in the St George on the 19th May, leaving the Cinque-ports behind, intending again to proceed for the coast of Peru.
We took a vessel of 120 tons on the 7th June, bound from Truxillo for Panama, and laden with flour, sugar, brandy, and other articles, with some bales of flowered silk. In her we found a packet of letters, and the first of these we happened to read was from the captain of the ship we had fought off Juan Fernandez, and fell in with again going into Callao. It was directed to the president of Panama, and stated, “That he had fought with two English privateers off Juan Fernandez, the smaller having only fired eight or ten guns at him, and then fell astern and did not come up again during the fight, as he believed for want of wind; while the large ship fought him yard-arm and yard-arm for more than six hours, killed a great many of his men, and wounded such numbers, that he had landed thirty-two at Lima, each of whom had lost a leg, an arm, or an eye, and he had been nearly taken, as at parting they had given themselves over for lost, not having a sufficient number of men left to defend themselves.” By other letters, we learnt that the two French ships we afterwards saw near Juan Fernandez had picked up a boat at sea, in which were an Englishman and a dog; had been in at the island of Juan Fernandez, and had taken up our anchors, cables, and long-boats, with all Captain Stradling’s stores, as also his five men and our negro who were left there. We learnt also, that the Spaniards had fitted out two men of war against us, one of thirty-two, and the other thirty-six brass guns, all twenty-four pounders, each having 350 sailors and 150 soldiers, all picked men, and had been cruizing for us in the Bay of Guayaquil, between point St Helena and Cape Blanco, from the 7th to the 12th.
We were forced to go under an easy sail, as our prize sailed very heavily, wherefore we went into “Sardinas” Bay, in lat. 1° 20′ N. where we anchored with our prize in ten fathoms, about four miles from the shore, for the purpose of rummaging her. We durst not go farther in, because of many shoals and sand-banks, which were very imperfectly laid down in all our charts. The sea-coast is inhabited by Indians, but not in any great numbers, and has several small fresh-water rivers. From hence, all the way south, till we came to the Bay of “Atacarnes”, in lat. 0° 54′ N. the sea-side is composed of white cliffs; and there are many shoals as far as “Punta de la Galera”, in lat. 0° 48′ N. Six leagues S.W. of Sardinas Bay is the great river of St Jago, the mouth of which is about three quarters of a mile wide, but has no good anchorage till well within. This river is seldom used by ships, being out of the way, yet the country here produces abundant provisions of all sorts. We careened our ship and rummaged our prize in the Bay of Sardinas, and watered at one of the fresh-water rivers, which was as white as milk, and both smelt and tasted very strong of musk, occasioned by many alligators swimming in it. We shot several of these creatures, one of which measured thirty feet in length, and was bigger about than a bullock.
The alligator is covered over with great scales from head to tail, having very large sharp teeth, and very long claws. It is amphibious, living both on land and in the water, and when lying on shore is often mistaken at a distance for a great tree fallen down. It runs very fast on the land, and is of such strength that one of them will take a horse or a cow into the water, and there devour it. They will seize on any thing, either on land or in the water, and often make great havock among cattle near their haunts, which are usually in fresh-water rivers. The Indians are not greatly afraid of them, either on land or in the water. In the former case, they run in circles, and this unwieldy animal is unable to turn his body quickly, so that they easily get away from them.
The Indians also go into the water to seek them, taking in one hand a piece of iron pointed and baited at both ends, with two cross pieces a little below the points. Holding this iron by the middle, when the alligator rises to bite, which he always does with, the head above water, the Indian holds out the iron to him which he snaps at, and it fastens in his mouth, keeping his jaws open like a gag. The female lays about 100 eggs at a time, as large as goose eggs; but quite spherical, and having shells as thick almost as those of an ostrich. The flesh of the alligator is not fit to be eaten, being very strong and musky; and the very water of the rivers they frequent was so strong of musk that a draught of it was like to suffocate us, yet there are no instances of its being injurious to health.
Being off the Bay of Guayaquil on the 21st June, we saw a ship, and came up with her next day, being one of the Spanish men of war fitted out to take us, carrying thirty-two guns. We did all we could to gain the weather-gage, but carrying away our fore-top-mast, were obliged to come to action from the leeward, so that she kept a good distance from us, and we could not use our small arms. Dividing our crew into two equal parts, one managed the guns while the other looked on, and when those at the guns were weary, the others took their places, alternately refreshing those who were not employed, by which means we fired much faster than the enemy, making about 560 discharges, while they only made 110 or 115. We thus fought from noon till half past six, though at such distance that our shot would hardly reach him, while his flew over us. Growing dusk, both ceased firing, none of our men being either killed or wounded, and only two through carelessness had their hands and faces scorched. We lay-to all night, expecting in the morning to renew the fight; but he had made sail from us in the night.
We now returned to the Bay of Atacames in search of provisions, for which purpose we sent our boat ashore with twenty men, who soon returned, saying they had found an Indian village of fifty houses, but the inhabitants were all fled and had left nothing behind. In the river we found a fine bark of about fifty tons, with as much new plank in her as would have built another of equal size; and we took another of about ten tons, laden with plantains. This we resolved to retain, instead of along-boat. She had two masts and two square-sails, and having fitted her for our purpose, we called her the Dragon. The country in the neighbourhood of this bay is very pleasant, being well wooded and watered. About seven leagues to the N.E. is the Bay of “St Mattheo”, the land about it being very high, and there are many shoals about it, running two leagues out to sea. For three or four leagues the water is only from four fathoms to six, and this bay has white cliffs both to the north and south. In the bottom of the bay there are two rivers running into the sea, both of which are what the seamen call “alligator water”, that is, white and musky as before described. On each side of these rivers there are shoals of sand; and near their mouths are fine groves of tall spreading green trees, which are the marks by which they may be found, as their mouths are narrow, and not discernible at a distance. These rivers are seldom frequented by the Spaniards, except for refreshments, for which they are well adapted, as all the adjoining country abounds with every kind of provisions that this part of the world produces. About two leagues up these rivers there are several Indian villages, who furnish the Spanish ships which come here with cocoa-nuts, plantains, bananas, and other kinds of fruit.
The “cocoa-tree” is generally from fifty to an hundred feet high, and for the most part straight and slender. The leaves are four fathoms, or four and a half long, at the very top of the tree, and serve excellently for thatching houses. At the bottom of the leaves the cocoa nuts grow in clusters of ten, fifteen, or twenty, hanging by a small string which is full of joints. Each nut, with its outer rind, is larger than a man’s head, and within this outer rind is a hard woody shell which will hold near a quart of liquid. The nut or kernel lines the inside of this shell, and within this kernel is about a pint and half of pure clear water, very cool, sweet, and pleasant. The kernel also is very good and pleasant; but when old, we scrape it all down, and soak it in about a quart of fresh water for three or four hours, which is then strained, and has both the colour and taste of milk, and will even throw up a thick head not unlike cream. This milk, when boiled with rice, is accounted very wholesome and nourishing by the doctors, and was given to our sick men. When the nut is very old, the kernel of itself turns to oil, which is often used to fry with, but mostly for burning in lamps. The outer end of the nuts may be applied to the purposes of flax, and of it the natives make a kind of linen, and it is also manufactured into ropes and cables, which are sold in most parts of America and the West Indies. The shell of this nut makes very pretty drinking cups, and it also burns well, making a fierce hot fire. Thus the cocoa-tree affords meat, drink, oil, clothing, houses, firing, and rigging for ships.
The “plantain-tree” is only about thirteen or fourteen feet high and four feet round, its leaves being eight or nine feet long and two broad, ending in a round point. The fruit grows at the bottom of the leaves, on a great stalk, in a pod about eight inches long and the size of a black pudding, being of a fine yellow colour, often speckled with red. The inside of this is white, but the plantain itself is yellow like butter, and as soft as a pear. There sometimes grow fifty or sixty of these pods on one stalk, and five or six stalks on one tree. They are an excellent fruit, and most parts of the East and West Indies abound with them. The “banana” tree is much the same with the plantain, but the fruit is only about six inches long, fifty or sixty of them growing on one stalk, and is extraordinarily mellow, sweet, and good.
We left the bay of Atacames on the 31st July, accompanied by our prize the Dragon, and passing the Bay of Panama, came to the Bay of Nicoya on the 16th August, in lat 9° 30’N. in which we anchored near certain islands near the centre of the bay, called Middle Islands, where we careened. While here, Mr Clippington, the chief mate, having quarrelled with Captain Dampier, drew over twenty-one men to his party, and making himself master of the bark, in which was all our ammunition and the best part of our provisions, hoisted anchor, and went without the islands, whence he sent us word that he would put ashore at an Indian house all our powder, shot, and other ammunition, reserving only what was necessary for his own use, which he did accordingly, and we sent our canoes to fetch it on board.
These islands in the Bay of Nicoya are extremely pleasant and fruitful, abounding in all things necessary for life, such as birds of various kinds, several sorts of fish, and amphibious animals, particularly turtles and guanas. Among the birds is a very beautiful one called the “Maccaw”, having feathers of all the colours of the rainbow. It is in shape like a large parrot, with a white bill, and black legs and feet. The “carrion crow” is as big as a small turkey, which it perfectly resembles in shape and colour; but its flesh smells and tastes so strong of muck that it is not eatable. The “pelican” is almost as big as a swan, being mostly white with brown tips to the wings, having a long bill with a large cross joining the lower part of the bill, and hanging down the throat like a bag or satchel of great size, into which it receives oysters, cockles, conchs, and other shell-fish, which it is unable to break, and retains them there till they open, when it throws them out and picks out the meat. They are good food, but taste a little fishy. Their feet are broad, and webbed like ducks, being water fowl, yet they commonly roost on rocks or trees, and always sit with their heads to the wind, varying their posture as that changes. They are heavy birds and fly slowly, and always when sitting rest their long bills upon their breasts. The “Guana” is an amphibious animal, found both on land and in the water. It is about three feet long, some more some less, and is very ugly, having large sharp scales, black and green, from the fore part of the head to the end of the tail. The mouth is furnished with numerous large and sharp teeth, and it has four long claws on each foot. They commonly breed in holes about the roots of old trees near the water. When stewed with some spice, their flesh is very white and eats well, making also good broth; but if not extraordinarily well boiled, it is very dangerous meat, making men very sick and often occasioning fevers.
There are several kinds of “turtles”, or sea tortoises, but we account the green turtle the best meat. When they want to lay their eggs, they go on shore in some sandy bay, where they make a hole in the sand with their fins, two feet and a half deep, in which one turtle will deposit from eighty to ninety eggs, which they cover over with the sand, leaving them to hatch by the heat of the sun. They lay in this manner two or three times every year, and go immediately off to sea, leaving their young when hatched to shift for themselves; which, as soon as they get out of the eggs and from the sand, retire to the sea. The eggs are round and white, as large as those of a duck, being covered with a thin tough skin, but no shell. I have seen of the green turtle 200, 350, and even 400 pounds weight. The lean of this animal looks like beef, but the fat is as green as grass, yet is very wholesome food. The “pearl-oyster” is much about the size of our common oyster, but thick and broad, and hangs to the rocks by a long string or beard, like that of a muscle. The pearl is found in its thickest part, and some have six or seven pearls. The Spaniards often make voyages to this gulf of Nicoya and to California in quest of pearls, employing Indian divers, who go down in seven or eight fathoms, and bring up eight, ten, or twelve oysters at a time, which are opened by other men on board. The meat of this oyster is very green and fat, and eats tolerably well, boiled or stewed. The “great-oyster” grows to the rocks, not hanging from them by a beard. When opened, one part of the meat is of a fine red colour like a cherry, and the rest a fine white. I have often eat of this oyster, for want of better victuals; and they are so large, that one of them cut in pieces and stewed is a sufficient meal for five or six men. The “muscles” here are so large that one will suffice for a meal to two men, and they are tolerably good when, stewed with pepper and vinegar.
We sailed from the Gulf of Nicoya on the 23d September, and were in lat. 13° 7′ N. on the 7th October, when we got sight of two high mountains, commonly called the Volcanoes of Guatimala. That which is to the north of the city is the highest, and affords a fine prospect from the sea; and in the year 1534 threw out a torrent of water, which totally overwhelmed the old city of St Jago de Guatimala, and occasioned the building of a new city at the distance of thirty-five miles S.E. The other mountain is really a volcano, which rages terribly in the rainy season, from April to November, sometimes throwing out stones as big as a house, and with such prodigious eruptions of flame, that one may see to read a letter in a dark night at the distance of six miles. This is to the south of Guatimala.
The 9th October we took a bark of eighty tons in ballast, but which had a small quantity of provisions, which were very acceptable. This bark was commanded by a Spaniard named Christian Martin, born in the Canaries, but brought up in London, who had formerly been servant to Captain Eaton, and came with him to the South Sea in quality of gunner; but, falling out with the men, he ran away from them in the island of Gorgonia, where he lay concealed for six days till the ship departed. He then cut down two trees, which he drew to the water side, and bound together with withes, fixed a mast, and made a sail of two shirts which he had with him. Then filling a bag with oysters, he put off early in the morning from Gorgonia, and got next day in the afternoon into the river Bonaventura. He was here ill used by the Spaniards, who sent him to Lima, where he was set at liberty. We were now sixty-four men and boys, all in good health and spirits, and on the 23d November, captured a small bark of sixty tons from California laden with plank, but having also several parcels of pearls, that had been fished on that coast. December 4th we came into the Bay of Nativity, or “Puerto Nauidad”, in lat. 19° 22′ N. where we took a new ship of about sixty tons, laden with ammunition and military stores for the Acapulco ship, for which we were now in search, and for the sight of which our people longed as earnestly as if there had been no difference between seeing and taking her; neither was it long before they had their wish in one respect, but not in the other. We took from our prize what ammunition was left; for, on perceiving our design, the ship’s company quitted her, having first thrown overboard the best part of her cargo, and left the rest scattered about in the utmost confusion.
Being off the volcano of Colima on the morning of the 6th December, we descried a sail to which we gave chace, and soon came up with her, when she proved to be the great Acapulco ship or Manilla galleon, which we had so long wished to fall in with. As we were well provided, we gave her a great many broadsides before she could get any of her guns cleared for action, as she had not suspected us of being an enemy, and was not at all prepared for us. Martin, who was still a prisoner on board our ship, advised us to lay her aboard immediately, while the Spaniards were all in confusion, as we might then easily succeed by boarding; but if we gave them time to get out their great guns, they would certainly tear us to pieces, and we should lose the opportunity of acquiring a prize worth sixteen millions of dollars. Thus it accordingly happened; for the time being wasted in disputing, between those of us that were for boarding, and those of a different opinion, she got out one tier of guns, and then proved too hard for us, so that we could not lie along side of her to do her any damage. Our five pound shot, which was the biggest we had, signified little against such a ship; but when any of her eighteen and twenty-four pound shot struck our ship, which was much decayed, it drove in a piece of plank of three or four feet. Being thus greatly damaged, and having received a shot between wind and water in our powder room, by which two feet of plank were driven in on each side of our stern, orders were given to stand off from the enemy.
Our design being thus disappointed, all our men became much discontented, and were for going home, seeing we could do no good in these parts, either for ourselves or owners; our ship also being ready to fall in pieces of herself, and having provisions only for three months at short allowance. Captain Dampier requested that we would consent to prolong our cruize for six weeks longer; after which he promised to permit us to sail for India to some factory, where we might all dispose of ourselves as we thought best for our advantage. To this we all agreed, and we accordingly cruized along shore to the S.E. in sight of land, passing the noted ports of Acapulco,”Puerto de los Angelos”, Guatalco, and several others; when we proposed to seek out a proper place in which to water our ships and bark, previous to our intended voyage to the East Indies; and, after some consideration, the Gulf of Amapalla or Fonseca was fixed upon for that purpose.
On the 5th January, 1705, we met with such vast quantities of fish, that in half an hour we caught near three score “albicores”, from sixty to ninety pounds weight each, besides vast quantities of other fish. The “albicore” is about four or five feet long, weight from 50 to 100 and even 150 pounds. It has eleven fins on its back, one pretty large, a second of middle size, and nine small yellow fins near the tail; one large fin on each side near the gills; and one near the middle of the belly. This is a very fleshy fish, having hardly any bones besides the back bone, and is extraordinary good eating. It has prodigious strength, while in the water, and preys mostly on flying fish, as do dolphins and bonetoes. On the 6th of this month, a new revolution took place in our affairs, as thirty of our men agreed to remain along with Captain Dampier in the South Sea; but with what view or on what terms, we others, who were not in the secret, never knew. Our company, who were not of Dampier’s party, consisted of thirty-three men; and, notwithstanding this new arrangement, we all sailed to the Gulf of Amapalla, where we anchored on the 26th January.
That same day, all the remaining provisions were equally divided between the two companies by the agent for the owners, and we had four pieces of cannon, with a proper proportion of small arms and ammunition, assigned for us, for our defence during the voyage to India. Our next care was to take in water, for which purpose we landed on the island of “Conchagua”; and after some search, we found a large bottom behind the hills, in which was a large plantain walk, and a large reservoir of rain water, which came from the mountains. This was very inconvenient, as we were forced to carry all our water over a high hill, which we could hardly climb by ourselves; but there was no alternative, and we set to work to cut down the bushes in our way, to make a clear path. After this, as the hill was very steep on the land side towards the bottom whence we had to fetch water, we cut steps in the hill with axes and shovels; and our sail-maker made a hose or canvass pipe of ninety fathoms long, which carried the water from the top of the hill down to our water cask at its foot towards the sea. We then fell to work, each man having a six gallon keg, in which the water was carried to the top of the hill, where it was emptied into the hose. We were thus employed four days, in which time we filled twenty-six tons, which we carried on board. The 31st January, we all went to the plantain walk, where we cut down as many plantains as we could carry, with which we returned on board our ship, meaning to set sail next day.
This evening, two of the men who had agreed to remain with Captain Dampier, left him and came over to us, so that our number was now thirty-five, viz. thirty-four English, and a little negro boy we had taken from the Spaniards. While we were employed in watering our bark, the men on board the St George were busied in refitting that ship as well as they could; the carpenter stopping up the shot-holes in the powder-room with tallow and charcoal, not daring, as he said, to drive a nail, for fear of making it worse. The four great guns, which usually stood between decks, were put down into the hold, there being sixteen besides, which was more than they now had men to manage, as there only remained twenty-eight men and boys with Captain Dampier, who were mostly landsmen, a very insignificant force indeed with which to make war on a whole nation.
“Sequel of the Voyage of William Funnell, after his Separation from Captain Dampier”.
We left the Gulf of Amapalla on the 1st February, 1705, where Captain Dampier remained at anchor in the St George, having a fine gale of wind at N.E. While in any of the harbours on the coast of Mexico, we were seldom allowed any thing except flour, only that we used to go on shore, and found on the rocks plenty of concks, oysters, muscles, and other shell-fish, on which we made many a hearty meal. Being now bound, as we hoped, for a land of plenty, we bore hunger and short commons with great patience, of which we had much need, as our allowance was no more than half a pound of coarse flour a day to each man, and two ounces of salt meat every other day. Our vessel was a small bark of about seventy tons with two masts, which we had taken from the Spaniards, which was so eaten with worms while in the Gulf of Amapalla, that she already began to grow very leaky. To add to our distress, we had no carpenter, neither had we a doctor or any medicines, if any of us happened to fall sick, and we had no boat to aid us if our vessel should fail. The carpenter, doctor, and boat being all left with Captain Dampier. Yet, trusting to God’s providence, who had already delivered us out of so many dangers, we proceeded on our voyage to India; and a bolder attempt was perhaps never made by such a handful of men in so frail a bark, and nothing but our anxious desire to revisit our native country could have supported us under all the difficulties and dangers of this extensive voyage.
The prospect of our difficulties gave us spirit and resolution to provide against them; and in a council, which we held on this occasion, we determined on the course we were to pursue, and the allowance of provisions during the course. We knew the wind we now had was merely a land breeze, and that by running 100 leagues out to sea we should fall in with the regular trade-wind, which blows always N.E. or E.N.E. our first purpose was, therefore, to get into the latitude of 13° N. which is that of Guam, and then to bear away before the wind in that parallel. This resolution was formed on the 2d February, all which day and most of the ensuing night we had fine calm weather, and caught abundance of “yellow-tails”, which swam about the vessel. This fish is about four feet long, having twenty fins on its back; a middling one behind the head, a large one on the middle of the back, and eighteen small ones between that and the tail. It has a large fin on each side near the gills, and thirteen under the belly, viz. a middling one under the gills, a large one near the middle of the belly, which goes in with a dent, and eleven small ones between that and the tail, which is yellow and half-mooned. This fish has a very great head, with large eyes, and is good eating, having no bones except the back-bone. It is all white, except the tips of the fins and the tail, which, are yellow. These fish were very acceptable to us, as we fed upon them for three days, saving our other provisions. On the 3d February, five or six turtles came near our bark, two of which we caught, which also served to save our scanty store of provisions, which otherwise had not sufficed to keep us from starving.
On the evening of the 3d February, having a brisk gale from the land at N.E. we took our departure from “Mount St Miguel” in the Gulf of Amapalla, steering S.W. and S.S.W. till we were in the lat. of 10° N. when falling in with the tradewind, we set our course W.N.W. we then made studding-sails to our main and main-top sails, which we hoisted every morning at day-break, and hauling down at sun-set, as it commonly blew so fresh in the night that we had usually to furl our top-sail; but the wind commonly abated at sun-rise. During our whole voyage we steadily adhered to the rule of diet we had laid down, the slenderness of which may be judged of by the following particulars.
From the 3d of February to the end of that month, we fed entirely on plantains, making two meals a day, and allowing two plantains to each man for a meal. We had then recourse to our flour, of which half a pound was allowed daily to each man, and two ounces every other day of salt beef or pork; but the meat had been so long in salt, that it shrunk one half when boiled, wherefore we concluded it was better to eat it raw, which we did as long as it lasted. By the beginning of April that began to fail, so that we were reduced to flour alone, which was sore spoiled, being full of maggots, spiders, and other vermin, so that nothing but the extremity of want could have induced us to eat it. It was surprising to behold this strange alteration in the flour, which only a few days before was white and fine, and was now in a manner all alive, the maggots tumbling over each other in prodigious numbers. On strict enquiry, these maggots seemed to proceed from the eggs of spiders deposited among the flour, out of which the maggots were bred, and then fed voraciously on the flour. Words can only faintly describe the miseries of our situation, which was somewhat alleviated by work, and our spirits were buoyed up by the hopes of accomplishing our long and difficult voyage. Some occasional assistance we derived by now and then catching a dolphin. At other times we saw many sea fowl, such as boobies, noddies, and others, which would come and perch on some part of our rigging, and happy was he that could catch one. In this manner we spent ten weeks, at the end of which we were in a very melancholy condition, and nothing but the hope of seeing land could possibly keep us from despair.
The 10th of April, we observed the clouds to gather more than usual in the horizon, which is a sure indication of land, as it is common between the tropics to be foggy over the land, though perfectly clear at sea; wherefore we kept an anxious look-out all this night, and early in the morning of the 11th, we saw the island of “Magon” W. ten leagues distant. This is a high woody island, very plain, and green on the top. When within a mile of this island, we lay to, and several fishing boats came to us, bringing us fish, yams, eggs, potatoes, and other provisions, to our great joy. The men in these boats were very tall and large-limbed, of tawny complexions, with long black hair reaching to their middles, and were all utterly stark naked, not even covering their parts of shame. In exchange for what we had of these people we offered them money, which they looked at and returned, making signs to give them tobacco, which we did, and they seemed much pleased. We also gave them some old shirts, which they tore in pieces and wrapped round their heads. We would have given each a dram of brandy, but they were afraid of it; only one man accepted a glass, which he drank off, but we thought he would never have closed his mouth again, he seemed so astonished at the heat it left in his mouth and stomach, that I believe he thought himself on fire. He lay down and roared like a bull near half an hour, when he fell asleep; and we being in haste, put him into his boat, making signs to his companions to take care of him.
These islanders seemed a very civil people, yet we did not venture to allow too many of them to come on board at once. When they first came near us, they tied two sticks together in form of a cross, which they held up, as we supposed, to signify to us that they had some knowledge of Christianity; whereupon we shewed them a crucifix, we had taken from the Spaniards, at the sight of which they all bowed their bodies, and came on board. This island of Magon, as I reckoned, is in lat. 15° N. and we made its longitude by computation, 120° 9′ W. from “St Miguel”, or 7029 English miles, allowing 58-1/2 miles to the degree of longitude in this parallel. 
On mature deliberation, we resolved to proceed directly from this place to New Guinea, without putting in at the island of Guam, which was in sight. The weather continued fair, and the wind brisk and favourable, till we came into the latitude of 4° N. when we had a calm for seven days, during which time we had no means of relieving our hunger, except by taking large draughts of water, and then lying down to sleep. On the 3d May we had a fine gale, which continued till the 5th, and then died quite away before we got sight of land; but about ten that night we were all sensible of a very odoriferous smell, whence we concluded that we were near land, on which we examined our charts, but found none laid down. Next morning, however, we saw land at no great distance. This day also we caught two bonetoes, which were most welcome, as they made a hearty meal to our whole company. This fish is commonly about three feet long and two in circumference, having a very sharp head, with a small mouth, full eyes, and a semilunar tail. It is very fleshy, and makes good broth. About noon we were in sight of three small islands, all low land, but very green and pleasant, especially to us, who had been so long of seeing any land. We had this day an observation of the sun, by which we found our latitude to be 50′ N. and as the eastermost of these islands was four leagues S.E. of the ship, it must of consequence be in lat. 0° 42′ N. 
As we were fearful of entering upon an unknown coast in the dark, we stood off all night, which was well for us, as we found ourselves at day-break next morning, 7th May, within a ship’s length of a great reef of rocks, which extended from one island to the other, and thinking to have gone between the islands, we had nearly run upon this dangerous ledge. Having a small breeze from shore we were fortunately able to stand off, and went to the westermost island, because we saw many shoals off the others. The rocks we were so near running upon were off the northmost isle, which we named the Island of “Deceit”. On getting near the westermost island which was the biggest of the three, forty or fifty of their flying proas came off, in which there might be 450 men,
allowing ten to each proa, and we could also see multitudes of people on he shore looking at us as we passed. The flying proas kept at a distance from us, till we beckoned and made signs for them to come near, and at length one came within a ship’s length, in which were ten men entirely naked, in the midst of whom was a grave old man of a pleasant countenance, entirely naked like the rest, except that he had a four-cornered cap on his head without a crown. By the respect shewn him by all the rest in the boat, we judged this man to be a king or prince. On their approach, they sung a song which continued near a quarter of an hour, and had a very pretty tune. When this was done, they came almost close to our vessel, and then sung another song, which was begun by the old man, and followed by all the rest in the boat. At the end of which, they put themselves in a posture of prayer, making many bows and cringes towards us; and then one of the men in the boat, who had a very sore leg, held it up to us, as if desiring us to cure it, whence we supposed they had never seen white men before, and deemed us more than mortals.
After some time, we made signs to let them know we wanted victuals and drink, when they shook their heads as if by way of denial. Seeing us proceeding towards the island, one of the men in the boat blew a horn, on which all the other boats made boldly towards us; and thinking they meant to board us, we fired a junket over their heads to intimidate them, at the noise of which they seemed much surprised and drew back, menacing us at a distance with their paddles, and still following. Seeing such multitudes on the shore, and finding we could have nothing from them but by force, and besides not having anchors and cables on which we could depend, or any boat in which to land, we concluded that we could do no good here; and on examining our water, which was found sufficient for eighteen days, at a quart each man daily, we resolved to quit these islands, and trust to Providence for guiding us to some more friendly place, where we might supply our wants. So we left these islands, naming the westermost the Island of “Disappointment”, because we made certain of procuring water here, but could not.
These three islands were all low, flat, and almost even with the water, yet full of trees of various sorts, all very green and flourishing; and doubtless, if we had possessed a boat, we must have found something beneficial to ourselves, perhaps useful to our country, as we might also at several other islands which we afterwards passed. The inhabitants of most of these islands were a very large and strong-boned race of men, having long black lank hair reaching to their middles, and were all entirely naked, not so much as covering their parts of shame; and I certainly never saw such, a parcel of stout-limbed men together in all my life. These islands, therefore, are abundantly peopled, though they were utterly averse from any communication with us, perhaps from a notion that all whites are Spaniards; and yet it is not quite clear that even the Spaniards have ever attempted to form a settlement at any of these islands.
We left these islands with a fresh breeze at E. steering S.W. and continually met with weeds and grass on our way, which made us believe we were not far from land, yet we had no ground with 100 fathoms. Early in the morning of the 9th May, we descried the coast of New Guinea, more than eighteen or nineteen leagues distant. We now saw the necessity of constructing a boat, with a few old boards and such other materials as we had, though not quite suitable for the purpose; and though neither strong nor handsome, it proved exceeding useful in the sequel. On the 9th we had very bad weather, the wind shifting to every point of the compass. This part of New Guinea appeared very mountainous, black, and rocky, without harbour, bay, or road, in which we might anchor in safety. The mountains seemed so bleak and barren, and the vallies so deep and narrow, that at first we conceived the country to be uninhabited; neither did we afterwards see any inhabitants or signs of any. That same day we passed two small islands, each about a league in length, which were very low, and well clothed with small green trees. At the same time we saw part of the great island of Gilolo, at the distance of eight leagues, and held our course W.S.W.  intending to pass through between that island and New Guinea, into the East Indian Sea.
We had very bad weather till the 11th of May, and the night being very dark, we missed the common passage, and found ourselves among many small islands; and as the wind was at E. we resolved to look out for some passage among these islands to the south. After infinite difficulty and much danger, we at length made our way through a strait, which we named “St John’s Straits”, after the name of our bark. At this time we were boarded by a large Indian proa, on board of which was a freeman of Amboina, whom we acquainted with our great want of victuals, having had nothing for a great while to support us except a scanty allowance of spoilt flour and water, and so very little of that as hardly sufficed to keep us alive. He told us, if we would go to the island of “Manissa”, which was then in sight, he would be our pilot, where he had no doubt we might have enough of rice for our money to carry us to Batavia. We accordingly proceeded for Manissa, passing by the island of “Keylan”, which is small and high, but well inhabited, and clothed with many kinds of trees. Its chief produce is rice, and a few cloves; and on this island there is a Dutch corporal with six soldiers, whose only business is to see all the clove trees cut down and destroyed. From thence we proceeded to Manissa, where we arrived about midnight, and came to anchor in a small bay at the N.W. end of the island, when our Dutch pilot sent two men ashore with a letter to the governor, acquainting him of our urgent wants.
Early of the 23d May, a Dutch corporal and two soldiers came on board, and read to us a general order from the Dutch East-India Company, that if any ships, except their own, came there to anchor, they were not to be supplied with any thing whatever. We told him that extreme want of provisions had constrained us to put in here, and that we should not have touched any where before reaching Batavia, if we could possibly have subsisted; wherefore we requested he would inform the governor of our urgent wants. This he engaged to do, seeing us in a very weak condition, and came back about four in the afternoon, saying that we could have no provisions here, but might be supplied at Amboina. We were forced therefore to leave this unfriendly place, and to attempt going to Amboina, if the wind would serve. “Manissa” is about fifteen miles from S.E. to N.W. and about eight in breadth, in lat. 3° 25′ S. and about twenty miles west from the island of “Bonou”. It is a remarkably high island, and pretty well inhabited by Malays, as are all the Molucca Islands. It is surrounded by shoals almost on every side, and some of these stretch a league and a half from the shore, so that it is very dangerous to come near, unless with very good charts, or with an experienced pilot. It has several good springs of fresh water, and the Dutch have a small fort with six guns on its S.W. side. It is governed by a Dutch serjeant, having under him three corporals, a master gunner, and twenty European soldiers; and produces vast plenty of rice and cloves, both of which are sent to Amboina. The inhabitants are mostly fishers, and catch such abundance of fish as not only supplies themselves, but enables them also to carry a great deal to Amboina.
We stood to the S.W. having the wind at S.S.E. and blowing fresh, so that we sailed under our courses, and were now much out of heart, not expecting to reach Amboina, the S E. monsoon being now set in; which was right against us. Almost in despair, we continued our course till we were over against the island of “Bouro”, and then the wind veering to the S.S.W. we stood away S.E. but finding a strong current setting to leeward, we rather lost ground, and seeing no likelihood of getting to Amboina, we, by general consent, shared among us all that was eatable on board, each man’s share being six pounds and three quarters of flour, and five pounds of bran, every one resolving to use his share as sparingly as possible. On the 25th, the wind veered to S.S.E. when we tacked to S.W. and soon weathered the island of “Amblow”. This is a small island of moderate height, in lat. 4° 5′ S. tolerably furnished with trees, but not inhabited. On the 26th, we had a fine fresh gale at S.E. when we tacked and stood away N.E. for the island of Amboina. Continuing the same course all the 27th, we got sight of Amboina early in the morning of the 28th, bearing due N. about six leagues distant. We now stood directly for the island, and about noon came just off the harbour, a joyful sight to us then, though we soon had cause to think it the worst thing that had befallen us.
As we entered the harbour of Amboina, we met two Dutch ships coming out, laden with cloves and bound for Batavia. The captain of one of these came on board our bark, desiring to know whence we came and whither we were bound, and required to have a journal of our voyage, promising to return it when he again met us at Batavia. We gave him the best answers we could to all his questions, and the agent of our owners gave him a succinct relation of our voyage, which was of happy consequence to us, as to that we afterwards owed our preservation as will appear in the sequel. We stood into the harbour that night, and next morning, which, according to our account, was Tuesday, but with the Dutch Wednesday, two Dutch “orambies”, as they call the vessels used at that place, came on board us, each of which was paddled by forty men. In these vessels came the fiscal and several Dutch gentlemen, with eighty soldiers, who immediately took possession of our bark. They also went below and sealed up all our chests, after which the two orambies towed us farther into the harbour, so that by noon we were up as high as the town of Amboina, where they moored our bark in the ordinary anchorage.
We continued on board till the 31st, two days, not knowing how they meant to dispose of us; in which time they would not supply us with any victuals, though we offered a crown a pound for beef, pork, or bread. In the evening of this day they took us all on shore, lodging us in two rooms near the Stadt-house, our bark, with all our money and goods, being taken from us, except what we happened to have about our persons, and soon after our vessel and goods were sold by auction. We were fed with bad meat, which our stomachs could ill digest, being very weak with having been so long on short allowance, and if we desired to have better we had to buy it with our own money. Several of us had fortunately some money about us, and as long as that lasted we purchased provisions from our keeper. For a Spanish dollar, which was worth five shillings and a penny, he would only give us five Dutch “skellings”, or the value of about two and six-pence; and even for this he gave us no more victuals than we could have bought for five-pence, if we had been at liberty to go into the town; so that, instead of five shillings for the Spanish dollar, we in reality had only five-pence. During my leisure, I had many opportunities of enquiring into the condition of Amboina, by which I was enabled to draw up a pretty large account of the island and its inhabitants, which I flatter myself will be acceptable to the public, as the Dutch are careful to prevent any accounts of this place from being published.
This “island of Amboina”, so famous, or rather infamous, for the cruelties and injustice formerly committed there by the Dutch upon the English, is twelve leagues long from N. to S. being high and mountainous, with intermediate vallies, which are very fertile, but the hills are in a great measure barren. The soil of the vallies is black, and affords salt-petre. The middle of the island is in lat. 3° 40′ S. The original inhabitants of the island are Malays, who are of middle stature and tawny complexions. The women are brighter than the men, and have long black hair, reaching to the calves of their legs. They have round faces, with small mouths, noses, and eyes. Their dress is a linen or cotton waistcoat, reaching only below their breasts, and a cloth round their waists, four yards long and a yard broad, which serves as a petticoat, as the Dutch women only are permitted to wear petticoats; neither are any of the men allowed to wear hats, except the king or rajah. The natives are numerous, yet the Dutch possess the whole sea-coast, and have here a strong castle, built of stone, mounted by sixty pieces of cannon, besides several small forts in other parts of the island. Near the castle is a small town of about 100 houses, of stone, brick, or timber, inhabited by the Dutch. None of the houses exceed one storey, as the place is subject to earthquakes, which would endanger the houses if higher, and even low as they are they often fall. While we were there we had a great earthquake for two days, which did much mischief as the ground opened in several places, and swallowed up several houses with their inhabitants. Several of their people were dug out of the ruins, but most of them dead, and many others had their legs and arms broken by the fall of the houses. Where we were, the ground swelled up like a wave of the sea, but no damage was done.
This island is governed by a council of five, consisting of the governor, the senior merchant, or “ober koop-man”, the Malay king, the captain of the fort, and the fiscal, which last is the judge. There are said to be on the island 350 Dutch soldiers, with 120 or 130 Dutch freemen and petty officers, and about as many Chinese, who reside here for the benefit of trade, though not allowed to participate in the spice trade, which the Dutch reserve entirely to themselves. I thus estimate that the Dutch are able to muster in this island about 550 fighting men, including themselves and the Chinese; for they can count very little on the Malays, who would gladly join any other nation against them. The Malay women are said to be very loose, and not ashamed of having intercourse with men. They are soon ripe, being often married at nine years of age, and are said to have children by ten or eleven. All who reside near the coast must live under the Dutch government, which is very dissolute and tyrannical, and they are severely punished for even small faults, being often reduced to slavery, and condemned to wear an iron on their legs for life. Those dwelling near the coast under the control of the Dutch are a kind of Christians; but those in the interior, among the hills, are Mahometans, and are always at war with the Dutch. When these hill Malays take any prisoners, they never give quarter; but, after detaining their prisoners a few days, without meat or drink, they are produced in public, and have their breasts ripped open, and their hearts taken out, all the Malays present making great rejoicings. The heads of these slaughtered prisoners are then embalmed with spice, and those who can shew the greatest number of Dutch heads are held in highest honour. In retaliation, when the Dutch take any of these hill Malays, they load them with irons, and after keeping them some days in prison, they cut off their ears and noses, and after being kept some time longer in prison, they are publicly racked to death.
When any of the Malays, living under the Dutch government, are found guilty of thieving, their ears and noses are cut off, and a great iron chain is fastened to their legs, in which condition they are made slaves for life. While we were there, about 500 poor wretches were in this condition, who were kept constantly employed, in sawing timber, cutting stones for building, carrying burdens, or other work. They are let out of prison at sunrise, the men being kept in one prison and the women in another, and are kept hard at work till noon, when they return to prison for an hour, being allowed for dinner a pint of coarse boiled rice for each. They return again to work at one o’clock, and return to prison at six in the evening, when they have a similar allowance for supper. Soon afterwards they are locked up in their lodgings, where they lie on the bare boards, having only a piece of wood for a pillow. Sometimes these poor wretches make shift to escape, but are used with great severity if again caught. One of the female slaves having escaped, and being retaken, cut her own throat to avoid the severe punishment awaiting her, when she was dragged out by the hair all round the town, and then hung on a gibbet by the feet. Such as are in debt, and cannot satisfy their creditors, are turned over by their creditors to the Dutch company, who send them to work among their slaves, having the same allowance of boiled rice with the rest, with two-pence a day towards paying their debts; but they seldom get free till carried out dead.
Though the poor natives are thus harshly treated, the Dutch wink at the faults of their countrymen, who are seldom punished for any crime, unless it be for murder, as in any other case they get off for a small sum of money, even for a great fault. The women slaves belonging to the free Dutch burgesses have all reasonable indulgence, but are obliged to find their own clothes and provisions, and pay an acknowledgement of about a sixpence daily, in default of which they are severely used. If they bring the daily tribute, they may whore or steal, and have no questions asked, provided no complaint is made against them. The chief products of this island are cloves, ginger, pepper, rattans, canes, and a few nutmegs.
The clove-tree is rather slender, and is from twelve to thirty or even forty feet high, having small branches, with tapering leaves about five inches long and two broad, which smell strong of cloves, when rubbed between the fingers. The cloves grow out at the tips of the branches, ten, twelve, or fourteen in a cluster, being white at first, then green, and lastly of a dark copper colour, in which state they are ripe and fit for gathering. At this period, they spread cloths or sheets on the ground round the bottom of the tree to a good distance, and shake the tree, when all the ripe cloves fall down. This is repeated every six or seven days for four or five times, till all the cloves have ripened and are shaken off. The usual time of gathering is October and February, those got in October, which is the end of their winter, being called “winter cloves”, and are not accounted so strong and good as the others. These are commonly preserved in small jars of about a quart each, of which great quantities are sent to various parts of the world. Those gathered in February are termed summer cloves, being better and stronger than the others, as ripening in the best part of the summer; whereas the former have not above a month of fair weather, all the rest of their winter season, which is our summer, being rainy and cloudy, so that the cloves want sun to ripen them. It is a common opinion, but extremely erroneous, that cloves, nutmegs, and mace grow all on one tree. One clove-tree commonly produces sixty, seventy, or eighty pounds of cloves in one season; and every sixth year they are sure to have a double crop.
There are a vast number of clove-trees on this island, which are carefully looked after, and a register of them is kept in the books of the company, being all numbered once every year, and they are not allowed to increase beyond a certain limited number, for fear of lessening the price, all beyond being cut down. All these trees belong to the Company, or the free burgesses, every burgess having only a fixed number; and if any one is found to have more than his allowance, he is severely fined, and all his trees forfeited to the company. Besides, the burgesses are bound to deliver the whole produce of their trees to the company at six-pence the pound. If any freeman or other is convicted of having sold or conveyed cloves from the island, to the value of ten pounds, his whole property is forfeited to the company, and he becomes a slave for life. The inhabitants used formerly to cheat the Dutch in the sale of their cloves, in the following manner. They hung up their cloves in a large sheet by the four corners, and set a large tub of water underneath, which the cloves, being of a very hot and dry nature, drew up by degrees, and thus made a large addition to their weight. But the Dutch are now too cunning for them, as they always try the cloves, by giving them a small filip on the head with the forefinger: if thoroughly ripe, and no deceit has been used, the head breaks off like a piece of thin brittle glass; but if watered, the clove is tough, and will sooner bend than break.
The “nutmeg-tree” is much like the peach, and there are a few of these in this island, but they grow mostly on the island of Banda, whence two or three ship-loads are exported yearly. The fruit of this tree consists of four parts. The first and outer rind is like that of a green walnut. The second, which we call “mace”, is dry and thin. The third is a tough thin shell, like that of a chesnut; and the fourth is the “nutmeg”, being the kernel included in that shell.
There are said to be some gold-mines in the island of Amboina; and a Malay once shewed me some of the ore, which, he said, came from these mines: but he said, at the same time, that he would be severely punished if the Dutch knew of his having any, as they wish, as much as possible, to keep this from the knowledge of all other Europeans.
Once every year the Dutch have to send a large force from Amboina on the following business, about the 20th of October. On this occasion the governor is attended by about seventy-five “orambies”, or boats of the country, some rowed by 100 paddles, some eighty, fifty, or forty paddles each, and in each of which there are two Dutch soldiers. I reckon therefore in this fleet 150 to 160 Dutch soldiers, and about 5250 Malays, allowing seventy to each “oramby” on the average. These seventy-five “orambies” are divided into three squadrons. The van-division of twenty “orambies”, is always commanded by a member of the council, who carries a yellow flag. The rear-squadron consists also of twenty “orambies”, and is commanded by the fiscal, having a red flag. The rest form the centre-squadron, and attend the governor, who has a serjeant and corporal, with twelve Dutch soldiers, for his body guard, and carries a blue flag. The governor is also attended by the Malay king and all their princes or chiefs, lest they should rebel in his absence.
In this order the fleet proceeds to visit and victual the eastern, or Banda islands, especially those that produce cloves or nutmegs; and at every island it goes to, it is joined by additional boats. This cruize generally lasts for six weeks, during which they cut down and destroy all the clove and nutmeg-trees they can find, except those which are reserved for the use of the company. All or most of these islands would produce cloves, but they will not suffer them, having enough at Amboina alone to supply all Europe. On all of these islands the Dutch keep a few soldiers, three, six, nine, or twelve, according to their size, whose only business is to see the trees cut down, or at least to take care that they do not increase; as they are very jealous lest the English or French should serve them as they did the English at Amboina. During this annual expedition, the governor levies tribute from all the petty kings and chiefs of these islands, and commonly returns to Amboina at the end of six weeks.
The island of Amboina produces beavers, hogs, and deer, besides other animals. Among its birds are crocadores, cassawaries, birds of paradise, and others. The “crocadore”, or “cockatoo”, is of various sizes, some as large as a hen, and others no bigger than a pigeon, being all over white, except a crest of feathers on the top of their head, which is always either yellow or red. This bunch of feather usually lies flat, in a dent, or hollow, on the crown of the head, unless when the bird is frightened, when it is erected, and opens like a fan. The flesh and legs of this bird are very black, and they smell very sweet. When they fly up and down the woods, they cry “crocadore, crocadore”, or “cockatoo, cockatoo”, whence their name. The “cassowary” is as large as a Virginia turkey, having a head nearly the same with the turkey, with a long stiff bunch of hair on his breast, also like the turkey. His legs are almost as thick as a man’s wrist, having five great claws on each foot. The back is high and round, both it and the pinions being covered with long hair instead of feathers. The female of this bird lays an egg so large that its shell will hold an English pint of fluid, having a thick shell, spotted with green and white, and exactly like China-ware. I never tasted the eggs of this bird, but its flesh is good eating, resembling that of a turkey, but stronger.
The “birds of paradise” are about the size of pigeons, and are never seen here alive, neither is it known whence they come. I have seen several of them at Amboina preserved in spice, in which state they are sent as rarities to several parts of the world. These birds are said to resort, in February and March, when the nutmegs are ripe, to Banda and Amboina, where they feed on the outer rind of the nutmeg, after which they fall to the ground, quite stupified, or as it were dead drunk, when innumerable ants gather about them, and eat them up. There are here many kinds of fish, but the most remarkable is the “sea-porcupine”, which is about three feet long, and two and a half feet round, having large eyes, two fins on the back, and a large fin on each side, near the gills. Its body is all beset with sharp spines, or quills, like a porcupine, whence its name is derived.
All round Amboina the bottom is sand, but the water is so deep that there is no anchorage near its shores, except to leeward, or on the west side, where a ship may anchor in forty fathoms, close to the shore in the harbour. This harbour runs so deep into the island as almost to divide it into two, which are joined by so narrow a neck of land that the Malays often haul their canoes across. On the east side of the entry into the harbour there is a small fort of six guns, close to which the depth is twenty fathoms. About a league farther up is the usual anchorage for ships, close under the guns of the great castle, which has been called “Victoria” ever since the massacre of the English at this place. About two miles farther to the N.E. and within the harbour, is the place where the English factory formerly stood; and near it is the hole into which the English were said to have been thrown after the massacre. Few of us who were now here but expected the same fate; and some of the inhabitants did not scruple to say that our only protection was our journal, which had been sent to Batavia by the Dutch ship we met when going into the harbour; as by this it would soon be known all over India that a part of Captain Dampier’s crew had arrived at Aniboina, which would cause us to be enquired after.
A little to the eastward of Amboina there are several other small islands, the most noted of which are “Boangbessay” and “Hinomsa”, only a small distance east from Amboina. These two islands are moderately high, and not above a third part so large as Amboina. They are both well fortified, and produce store of cloves. The chief place for nutmegs is the island of “Banda”, which also belongs to the Dutch, being in lat. 4° 20′ S. 28 leagues S.S.E. from Amboina. This island is said to have the form of a man’s leg and foot, and is well fortified. The governor of Amboina is supreme over all the spice islands, even to “Ternate” and “Tidore”, which are also spice islands belonging to the Dutch, and are about forty miles to the north of the equator. We were so troubled at Amboina by musquitoes, a sort of gnats, that we had every night to put ourselves into a bag before we could go to sleep, as otherwise these insects bit us so intolerably that we could get no rest. Wherever they bit, there commonly rose a red blister, almost as broad as a silver penny, which itched so violently that many cannot forbear from scratching, so as to cause inflammations that sometimes aid in the loss of a limb. During our stay, we were allowed to walk in a paved yard about sixty yards square; but were not permitted to go into the town, that we might not learn their strength, or make any discoveries prejudicial to them.
We remained at Amboina from the 31st of May to the 14th of September, 1705, when three of their sloops were ready to sail with cloves to Batavia, in which twenty-five of our men were sent away to Batavia, ten of us being left behind, who they said were to be sent in another vessel, almost ready to sail. On the 27th September, a Malay man was brought to the Stadt-house to be tried for his life, being accused by his own wife of having murdered his slave. The slave had been dead six months, when the wife falling out with her husband, she went to the fiscal in the heat of her rage and revealed the murder, on which the husband was thrown into prison, but it was generally believed that he was wrongfully accused by his wife. During his trial the earthquake took place, formerly mentioned, which made the court break up, fearful the house might fall on their heads. At this time I observed that it is an error to suppose that it is always calm during an earthquake; for we had a fine fresh gale at S.S.W. both days on which the earthquake happened. Next day the court sat about eleven o’clock, continuing the trial; and while the wife was in her greatest violence in the accusation of her husband, the earth shook again with much violence, which obliged the court again to break up.
That same day, the 28th September, I and four more of our men were sent off for Batavia in a Chinese sloop, the other five men being promised to be sent after us in a short time, but we never heard of them afterwards. We sailed westwards till we came to the island of Lancas, in lat. 5° 27′ S. and by my estimation, 2° 21′, or 155 miles W. from Amboina. We then steered W. by N. till we made two islands called the “Cabeses”, whence we procured some hundred cocoa nuts. The eastermost island, to which we sent our boat, is low and uninhabited, but has been planted full of cocoa-nut trees by the Dutch, for the use of their vessels going between the spice islands and Batavia, as it is a kind of miracle to see any other ship in these parts except those belonging to the Dutch. Off this island we met our own bark which had brought us from America to Amboina, the Dutch having fitted her up with a main-mast and converted her into a very good vessel. This island is in lat. 5° 23′ S. and nearly W. by N. from the island of Lancas, about forty-five miles distant, and has a shoal extending about two miles from the shore. To the S.W. of this is the other island of “Cabeses”, a pretty high island, on which the Dutch always keep a corporal and two soldiers, who go two or three times all
over the isle to see that no cloves are planted, and if they find any to cut them down and burn them, lest any other nation might be able to procure that commodity, in which case Amboina would become of little value, as cloves are its only valuable product.
We next passed by the S. end of the island of “Bouton”, or “Booton”, which is pretty large, and in the lat. of 5° 45′ S. We steered W. from thence, between the islands “Celebes” and “Zalayer” or “Salayr”. The S.W. leg or peninsula of Celebes is very high land. Celebes is composed of very high land, very well inhabited, being a very large island, extending through seven degrees of latitude. On the west side of its southern end the Dutch have a factory named Macasser, where they have a fortress of about seventy guns, and a garrison of 600 or 700 Dutch soldiers. The chief product is rice, with which they supply most of their eastern islands from hence. There are said to be gold-mines in this island, of which the Dutch are not yet masters, as the inhabitants are often at war with them, and have hitherto been able to keep them from those parts of the island. Between the south end of Celebes and the island of Salayr there are three small low islands, and the best channel is through between the island next to Salayr, and another small isle to the northward. This is called the “second” passage, the first, third, and fourth of these passages being very dangerous, so that ships generally avoid them if possible. I would willingly give an account of every island I have occasion to mention, but as that is not in my power, I must rest satisfied with what I am able to say consistent with truth.
The island of “Zalayer”, or “Salayr”, is of moderate height, inhabited by Malays, and planted all round with cocoa-trees, the natives being obliged to send a considerable quantity of nuts and oil to the Dutch at Macasser as tribute. We steered from hence W. by N. till we had passed a dangerous shoal called the Porill, after which we stood to the S.W. and saw in the night a small island just in our way, which we were unable to weather, and therefore stood off till daylight, when we were to the S. of that isle, when we tacked and stood again S.W. and soon after saw two other small isles bearing from N. to N.W. For about two miles of our course at this time, the sea was so transparent that we could plainly discern the bottom, which was never less than five or more than six fathoms, yet appeared only two to the eye. We passed over this shoal about a league to the S. of these two small islands, this being the narrowest part of the shoal, for it is five or six leagues in breadth farther to the south; yet is it every where without danger, as it has very uniform soundings, seldom over or under five or six fathoms. To the north of these islands, however, it is very dangerous, being all over foul rocky ground, and having in some places not more than four or five feet water; it is proper, therefore, always to keep to the south of these islands, where the passage is perfectly safe. Yet in the Dutch charts, these dangers are laid down to the southward, which should have been to the northwards, and they lay down the safe shoals to the northward, whereas we now went to the southwards, as they always do. The captain of our vessel had a chart on board, which shewed these things exactly as I have now described, but which I compared with several others, also on board, which I found quite different. I asked our captain the reason of this, when he told me that all these shoals and dangerous places were well known to the Hollanders, but they did not wish they should be known by others, but rather that strangers might lose their ships among these rocks and shoals, as we certainly had done, if we had sailed according to these common charts.
We entered the harbour of Batavia on the 21st October, and sent immediately on landing to join the rest of our men, who were still detained in custody. We were soon afterwards visited by the first major, who desired us to transmit to the general, through him, an account of the losses we had sustained by our being taken prisoners at Amboina, and we should receive compensation for our effects, loss of time, and imprisonment. We each accordingly drew up accounts of our losses, which we sent by the major to the governor, who sent us back word that we should speedily have our freedom. On the 27th we were sent for to the fort, where most of our money was returned; but we could have no satisfaction for our goods, imprisonment, and loss of time, the governor-general saying that he had given us all that had been sent to him as ours by the governor of Amboina, and that we were now at liberty to go where we pleased. As our vessel had been taken from us for the use of the Dutch Company, we desired he would be pleased to find us some ship for our return home, which he promised; with which arrangement we were forced to be satisfied, and took lodgings in the city of Batavia, till an opportunity might offer for our return to Europe. In the course of seven weeks residence here, I made all the observations I could upon this place and its inhabitants. I found the city in as good a condition as could be wished, and the people seemed to be as prudent and as industrious as any I had ever seen: But, as the descriptions already published of this place are so exact as to render my observations superfluous, I shall content myself with a very short description,
referring the curious reader to the large accounts that have been published by Dutch, French, and English writers, but especially the first.
BATAVIA is the chief place belonging to the Hollanders in India, and receives all the productions of India, Japan, and China. The Malays are the original natives; but besides these and the Dutch, who are the masters, it is inhabited by Portuguese, Chinese, Persians, and negroes. The town is large and handsome, having seven churches, belonging to the Dutch, Portuguese, Malays, and Chinese. The town has many spacious houses built in the European manner, and is walled and moated all round, the ramparts being well provided with cannon. In the middle of the city there is a spacious square, in which is the stadt-house, where all public matters are transacted. This city is usually governed by a member of the States-General of the United Netherlands, with the title of Governor-General of India, all other governors of the possessions belonging to the Dutch Company being subordinate to his authority. The inhabitants are well pleased in the governor-general being often changed, as all prisoners are released at the installation of a new one, except those charged with murder. He has twelve counsellors to assist him, who are called the “rads”, or lords of India, and are mostly such as have formerly been governors in other places, as in Ceylon, Amboina, Malacca, &c.
The city is divided by many canals, over which there are bridges almost at the end of every street, together with booms to lay across, that no boats may go in or out after sunset. The chief product of the adjoining country is pepper, of which the Dutch export great quantities every year; and there are also some few diamonds and other precious stones. The chief fruits here are plantains, bananas, oranges, lemons, mangostans, and rumbostans. The “mangostan” is about the size of a golden rennet, quite round, and resembling a small pomegranate, the outer rind being like that of the pomegranate, but of a darker colour, but the inside of the rind of a fine red. The fruit lies within the rind, commonly in four or five cloves, of a fine white, very soft and juicy, within each clove having a small black stone or pip. The pulp is very delicious, but the stone is very bitter, and is therefore thrown away, after sucking the fruit The “rumbostan” is about the size of a walnut after the green outside peel is off, and is nearly of the shape of a walnut, having a thick tough outer rind of a deep red colour, full of red knobs, within which is a white jelly-like pulp, and within that is a large stone. The pulp is very delicate, and never does any harm, however much of it a man may eat, providing he swallow the stones; but otherwise they are said to produce fevers.
This island of Java, on the north side of which Batavia is situated, extends about ten degrees from east to west, or nearly 700 English miles. The weather is here extremely regular, and the inhabitants know how to use it to the best advantage. During the eastern monsoon, the land-winds are at S.E. Sometimes more southerly; and the sea-winds blow from the N.E. fine pleasant gales. This easterly monsoon is accounted the good monsoon, being fine clear and fair weather, and begins in April, ending in October. The other, or westerly, is called the bad monsoon, consisting of blustering rainy weather, accompanied with much thunder and lightning, especially in December, January, and February. This bad monsoon begins in November and ends in March or the beginning of April; during which the land-winds are W.S.W. or S.W. and the sea-winds at N.W. and W.N.W.
The anchoring ground all along the north side of Java, from Madura to Batavia, is a fine oozy bottom, free from rocks. The principal places on this side of the island are Batavia, Bantam, Japara, Samarang, Surabon, Taggal, Quale, and Rambang; all of which are possessed by the Dutch. These settlements afford abundance of rice, with which the Dutch supply all their out-factories near Java, and also produce excellent plank for ship-building. The principal place for ship-building is “Rambang”, where the free burgesses of Batavia usually go to build their small vessels, as sloops and brigs. Ships of five, six, and seven hundred tons, often load with timber at Rambang, Quale, Japara, and other places; and each ship, after being fully laden, takes a great raft or float of the largest timber, which she tows along with her to Batavia. Some of these rafts are said to be thirty feet square, and draw twenty feet water.
There are commonly six ships employed in this timber trade, and they usually make four voyages yearly in the good monsoon, for in the bad they cannot do any thing. Ail this timber is for the most part landed on the island of “Ormrust”, between four and five leagues from Batavia, where there are about 200 ship-carpenters, who are constantly in full employ, and here the Dutch careen their ships. This island is well fortified, being, to use a sea phrase, all round a bed of guns.
We had notice on the 2d December, 1705, that all of us who wished to return to England should immediately go on board the homeward-bound Dutch East India fleet, which we did accordingly, and sailed next day. This fleet consisted of twelve ships, as well provided in all respects as any I had ever seen, and we made the voyage in good order. We arrived at the Cape of Good Hope on the 3d February, 1706. The Dutch have here a strong fortress, and about half a mile from this is a fine town of 150 houses, with a small church. The country in the neighbourhood is very high, and the mountains are mostly barren, producing only a few shrubs; but the country is full of lions, tigers, elephants, and other wild beasts, which give great disturbance to the settlers, for which reason the government gives a reward of fifty-two guilders for killing a lion, equal to four pounds six and eight-pence, and twenty-four guilders, or forty shillings, for killing a tiger. While we were there, a certain Scotsman killed four lions, three tigers, and three wild elephants, for all of which he got the rewards. The Dutch make here a great quantity of an excellent wine, called Cape wine, which is sold by retail at eight-pence a quart.
We sailed from the Cape the 24th of March, excellently provided with every thing requisite for the voyage. We were now twenty-four sail, having nine English and fifteen Dutch ships. On the 17th April we made the island of Ascension, but did not touch there even for turtle, although their season of laying, having been so well provided with fresh provisions at the Cape that we had no occasion for more. On the 19th there happened a great earthquake, when the ship seemed for some time as if she run along the ground, on which we heaved the lead on both sides, but had no ground at 200 fathoms. The whole fleet felt the shock at the same time; so that for about ten minutes every ship was making signals and firing guns. On the 14th June we saw four sail of French privateers, which were waiting for us; but after looking at us for some time, and observing the regular order in which we sailed, they did not think it adviseable to make any attempt against us, and bore away. This shewed the great advantage of the regular order observed by the Dutch in sailing, in which on this occasion they were imitated by the English ships in company.
On the 30th June we were in lat. 62° 40′ N. the highest north I was ever in, and I could not help noticing the great difference in point of cold here and in 60° S. There we had continual showers of snow or hail, with bitter cold weather; while here the weather was fair, and the cold moderate. In the evening of the 3d July we saw the Faro Islands. On the 5th we met with eight Dutch men of war, which were cruizing on purpose to convoy us safe home, accompanied by four victuallers and three of the Company’s privateers. On the 15th July we all arrived safely in the Texel, and got on the 17th to Amsterdam. After this, I and the rest of our company went to see several parts of Holland, and we arrived on the 26th August, 1706, in England, after many dangers by sea and land, being only 18 of us out of 183. The news of our misfortunes reached home before us, and every body was solicitous to have an account of our adventures, especially while under the power of the Dutch at Amboina.
These importunities led me to believe that a faithful relation of our voyage would be acceptable to the public, and I hope some of the descriptions, observations, and discoveries contained in this small performance may be found useful, and not altogether destitute of entertainment.
“Brief Account of Stradling, Clipperton, and Dampier, after their respective Separations, till their Returns to England.”
The reader may remember that Captain Dampier, in the St George, left “Captain Stradling” in the Cinque-ports on the 19th of May, 1704, at King’s Island, in the Bay of Panama. The force under Captain Stradling was too insignificant to maintain him long in the South Sea, for which reason he went to the island of Juan Fernandez in search of shelter and refreshments. They were in so forlorn a condition at this time, that Alexander Selkirk chose rather to remain by himself in that island, than to run the hazard of returning to the South Sea in the Cinque-ports. In this he shewed great judgment, as the Cinque-ports actually foundered on the coast of “Barbacora” (Barbacoas), and only Captain Stradling, with six or seven of his men, were saved, and sent prisoners to Lima. Captain Stradling was alive there at the time when Woods Rogers came into the South Sea, but what became of him afterwards is unknown.
The next person who left Captain Dampier was his mate, “Mr Clipperton” of whom we shall have occasion to say much in a succeeding voyage round the world. Clipperton was certainly a man of parts and resolution, and probably would not have deserted from Captain Dampier, if he had not thought that his commander was resolved to remain in his old crazy ship in the South Sea till she foundered. Finding many of the crew of the same opinion, he thought proper to leave him at the middle islands, as already related, where it was plain to every one that the St George was no longer fit for going to sea. Mr Clipperton set sail on the 2nd September, 1704, having twenty-one men, in a small bark of ten tons, with two masts and two square sails, two swivels, two or three barrels of powder, and some shot. With this inconsiderable force, he ventured into Rio Leon, on the coast of Mexico, where he took two Spanish ships riding at anchor. One of these was very old and worm-eaten, which he immediately sunk. The other was new, and had goods on board to a considerable value, and for her Captain Clipperton demanded a ransom of 10,000 dollars, by two of his prisoners whom he set on shore. The prisoners spoke so handsomely of Clipperton that the governor resolved to treat with him, and sent him word that he did not think his offer unreasonable, but the owners were entirely ruined, and the town so poor that it was impossible to comply with his terms; but if 4000 dollars would content him, which was all they could raise, that sum should be sent aboard, and the governor would rely on the honour of Captain Clipperton for the release of the ship. Clipperton accepted this proposal, but as his bark was in want of provisions and water, he sent word to the governor, that every kind of provisions and drink were not to be considered as within the capitulation. This was readily agreed to, the money was sent on board, and as soon as the provisions were got out of her, the ship was honourably restored.
Clipperton went thence to the Bay of Salinas, where his little vessel was drawn on shore, and cleaned and effectually refitted, after which he resolved in this cockle-shell to sail for the East Indies, which he actually did, keeping in the latitude of 18° N. and reached the Philippine Islands in fifty-four days. While among these islands, a Spanish priest came off to his bark in a canoe, and Clipperton detained him till furnished with a supply of fresh provisions, and then set him at liberty. His next scheme was to sail for the English settlement of Pulo Condore, in lat 8° 40′ N. off the river of Cambadia, and actually came there: But finding that the English had been massacred by their Indian soldiers on the 3d March, 1705, for which reason no relief or safety could be expected there, he bore away for Macao, a port belonging to the Portuguese on the coast of China, where he and his people separated, every one shifting for himself as well as they could. Some went to Benjar,  in order to enter into the service of the English East India Company, while others went to Goa to serve the Portuguese, and some even entered into the service of the Great Mogul, being so bare after so long a voyage, that any means of providing for themselves were desirable. Clipperton returned to England in 1706, and afterwards made another voyage round the world in the Success, of which an account will be found in its proper place.
It is not easy to conceive a worse situation than that in which Captain Dampier was left at the close of the year 1704, when Mr Funnell and his people separated from him, being only able to retain twenty-eight of his men, and even these were prevailed upon to stay, by representing that it was easy to surprise some Spanish village, and that the fewer they were, each would have the greater share in the plunder. After some consultation, they resolved to attack Puna, a hamlet or village of thirty houses and a small church, the inhabitants of which are well to pass, and are under the command of a lieutenant. Dampier landed here in a dark night, and, surprizing the inhabitants in their beds, got possession of the place with very little trouble.
After plundering this town, they repaired to the island of “Lobos de la Mar”, and took a small Spanish bark by the way, well furnished with provisions. They now resolved to quit their own ship, and to endeavour to sail for the East Indies in this small bark; and accordingly left the St George at anchor under the island of Lobos, after taking every thing valuable out of her. They then sailed across the Pacific Ocean to the East Indies, and arrived at the Dutch settlements, where their bark was seized, and they were turned adrift to shift for themselves as they best might. Dampier returned naked to his owners, with a melancholy relation of his unfortunate expedition, occasioned chiefly by his own strange temper, being so self-sufficient and overbearing that few or none of his officers could bear with him; and when once disputation gets in among those who have the command, success is not to be expected. Even in this distress, he was received as an eminent man, notwithstanding his faillings, and was introduced to Queen Anne, having the honour to kiss her hand, and to give her majesty some account of the dangers he had undergone. The merchants were so sensible of his want of conduct, that they resolved never to trust him any more with a command; and this, with the poverty resulting from his late unlucky voyage, obliged him to make the tour of the world once more as pilot to the Duke, commanded by Captain Woods Rogers, the relation of which voyage forms the subject of next Section.
: Funnel’s narrative in Dampier’s Voyages, vol. IV. pp.1.–208. Harris, I. 131. Callender, III. 66. and III. 145.
: All these fancies are now shewn to be imaginary.
: This introduction is from the pen of Harris; and the last paragraph, marked by inverted commas, is given in the words of Funnell.
: Lat. 32° 33′ N. long. 17° 5′ W. from Greenwich.
[Footnote 206: Isla Grande is only in lat 30° N. and St Paul’s, stated in the text, as 300 miles distant, is hardly 200, and is at within twenty-five miles of the coast farther south.
: Called Sibbil de Ward Islands in the narrative of Funnell.
: There must be a material error here, as they afterwards, in sailing along the coast “to the northwards”, passed Copaipo, which is in lat. 27° 13′ S. and they consequently must have fallen in with the coast of Chili, improperly named Peru in the text, considerably farther south.
: Lat. 1° 56′ N. long. 78° 50′ W. from Greenwich.
: From the sequel, this island of Magon appears almost certainly to have been one of the Ladrones, perhaps to the N.E. of Guam, now named Rota. Point Candadillo, near San Miguel, the N.W. cape of the Gulf of Amapalla, is in long. 87° 58′ W. and the Ladrones are in long. 216° W. from Greenwich, so that the difference, or run across the Pacific, is 128° 2′, which, at 58-1/2 miles, extend to 7590 miles, besides the allowance for difference of latitude.
: The only islands in modern maps which agree with the slight notice in the text, are Frevilla, or St David’s Isle,, nearly in lat. 1° N. and long. 135° E. from Greenwich: Yet it is singular that Funnell should have passed through the numerous group of the Carolines without seeing any of them.
: The only way of explaining this part of the text, is by supposing Funnel may have mistaken the island of Waygoo for a part of New Guinea, and even the N.W. point of that island is at least sixty leagues from the S.W. leg or peninsula of Gilolo, to which the direction of his course certainly points.
: This seems to indicate that, of the seven “churches”, some belong to the Dutch Calvinists and Portuguese Roman Catholics, while others are Mahometan places of worship for the Malays, and idol temples, or “pagodas”, frequented by the Chinese.
: This person, on whose simple adventures the romance of Robinson Crusoe was soon afterwards founded, will be more particularly mentioned in a subsequent chapter of this book.
: This is perhaps an error for Bombay; yet it may have been Benjarmassin, on the southern coast of Borneo.
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